Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

[Difficile pensare che gli alberi temano dei possibili effetti nocivi dovuti alle Microonde e per questo si ammalino.
Conseguentemente, le evidenze riscontrate nello studio che segue, nello specifico evidenti danni in alberi siti in prossimità di Stazioni Radio Base, sono da ritenersi un fatto oggettivo.
Non si tratta quindi di Effetto Nocebo, bensì di reale nocività dei Campi Elettromagnetici in Alta Frequenza.
Se succede questo agli alberi, si possono escludere effetti negativi sui residenti in prossimità delle Stazioni Radio Base, pur nell’ambito dei limiti di legge? Decisamente no, ma qualcuno ancora lo nega…

La traduzione in Italiano dell’Abstract segue la versione in lingua originale.]

Sci Total Environ. 2016 Aug 20;572:554-569. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045. [Epub ahead of print]

By:

Waldmann-Selsam C1, Balmori-de la Puente A2, Breunig H3, Balmori A4.

1Karl-May-Str. 48, 96049 Bamberg, Germany.
2C/Navarra, 1 5°B, 47007 Valladolid, Spain.
3Baumhofstr. 39, 37520 Osterode, Germany.
4Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Castilla y León, C/Rigoberto Cortejoso, 14 47071 Valladolid, Spain.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Published: August 2016

Keywords
Effects on trees; Electromagnetic radiation; Phone masts; Radiofrequencies

ABSTRACT

In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m2) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time.

Source/Fonte:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27552133?dopt=Abstract

SEPARATORE AIE x sito

[IT]

Negli ultimi due decenni è avvenuta l’installazione di antenne della telefonia mobile in tutto il mondo e, per molti anni, c’e’ stato un dibattito nella comunità scientifica sul possibile impatto ambientale delle stazioni radio base della telefonia mobile. Gli alberi hanno diversi vantaggi rispetto agli animali come soggetti sperimentali e lo scopo di questo studio era di verificare se ci fosse una connessione tra danni insoliti (in genere unilaterali) agli alberi ed esposizione alle radiofrequenze. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo, è stato realizzato un dettagliato studio a lungo termine (2006-2015) di monitoraggio sul campo nelle città di Bamberg e Hallstadt (Germania). Durante il monitoraggio, sono state effettuate osservazioni e registrazioni fotografiche di danni agli alberi insoliti o inspiegabili, insieme a misure delle radiazioni elettromagnetiche in radiofrequenza. Nel 2015 le misurazioni dei campi elettromagnetici in radiofrequenza sono state portate a termine. Come sito dello studio è stato scelto un poligono che si estendeva attraverso entrambe le città, dove sono state effettuate 144 misure all’altezza di 1.5 metri in strade e parchi in differenti punti. Tramite l’interpolazione dei 144 punti di misura, siamo stati in grado di compilare una mappa elettromagnetica della densità del flusso di potenza in Bamberg e Hallstadt. Abbiamo selezionato 60 alberi danneggiati, in aggiunta a 30 alberi selezionati in modo casuale e a 30 alberi in aree a bassa radiazione (n=120) nell’ambito di questo poligono. Le misure presso tutti gli alberi hanno rivelato differenze significative tra il lato danneggiato che fronteggiava l’impianto di telefonia mobile e il lato opposto, come pure delle differenze tra il lato esposto degli alberi danneggiati e ambo i lati di tutti gli altri gruppi di alberi. Così, abbiamo trovato che le differenze laterali nei valori misurati di densità di flusso di potenza corrispondevano alle differenze laterali del danno. I 30 alberi selezionati nelle aree a bassa radiazione (nessun contatto visuale con impianti di telefonia mobile e densità di flusso di potenza sotto 50μW/m2) non presentavano danni. L’analisi statistica ha dimostrato che la radiazione elettromagnetica degli impianti di telefonia mobile è dannosa per gli alberi. Questi risultati sono coerenti con il fatto che il danno inflitto agli alberi dagli impianti di telefonia mobile solitamente inizia da un lato, per estendersi all’intero albero nel tempo.

The magnetic orientation of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica is cancelled by very weak radiofrequency fields.

[Se deboli Campi Elettromagnetici artificiali in Radiofrequenza sono in grado di influenzare il comportamento degli animali disorientandoli, siamo sicuri che si tratti di EFFETTO NOCEBO quando gli Elettrosensibili si definiscono “storditi” se esposti alle microonde della tecnologia Wireless?]

Journal of Experimental Biology 2016; doi: 10.1242/jeb.132878

by Tomanova K1, Vacha M2.

1Department of Animal Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
2Department of Animal Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic. vacha@sci.muni.cz.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Published: 29 March 2016

ABSTRACT

Studies on weak man-made radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF) affecting animal magnetoreception aim for a better understanding of the reception mechanism and also point to a new phenomenon having possible consequences in ecology and environmental protection. RF impacts on magnetic compasses have recently been demonstrated on migratory birds and other vertebrates. We set out to investigate the effect of RF on the magnetic orientation of the Antarctic krill speciesGondogeneia antarctica, a small marine crustacean widespread along the Antarctic littoral line. Here, we show that having been released under laboratory conditions,G. antarcticaescaped in the magnetically seaward direction along the magnetic sea-land axis (Y-axis) of the home beach. However, the animals were disoriented after being exposed to RF. Orientation was lost not only in an RF of a magnetic flux density of 20 nT, as expected according to the literary data, but even under the 2 nT originally intended as a control. Our results extend recent findings of the extraordinary sensitivity of animal magnetoreception to weak RF fields in marine invertebrates.

Source/Fonte:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026715http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026715

Does Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Originate from Nocebo Responses? Indications from a Qualitative Study

[Quando viene effettuato uno studio di qualità sulla EHS, l’EFFETTO NOCEBO viene SMENTITO.

Da notare quanto segue:

“Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure.”

“In generale, i sintomi compaiono prima che soggetti inizino ad interrogarsi sugli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici sulla loro salute, il che non è coerente con l’ipotesi che la Intolleranza Ambientale Idiopatica attribuita ai Campi Elettromagnetici origini da risposte nocebo dovute a percepita esposizione ai campi elettromagnetici.”

Questo è un aspetto fondamentale, che da solo basterebbe a smentire chiunque parli di EFFETTO NOCEBO, facendo venire meno la necessità di produrre studi in merito alla questione.

E dalle storie di Elettrosensibilità che abbiamo raccolto, emerge chiaramente che i malati hanno iniziato ad avere problemi ben prima di scoprire a cosa fossero dovuti.

Non si tratta di sintomi, ma di segni (!), ergo di qualcosa di obiettivo e tangibile: disturbi endocrinologici con manifestazioni cliniche importanti, rash cutanei di varia natura, disturbi urinari gravi con infezioni urinarie ricorrenti, disturbi gastrointestinali, …, che hanno portato a trafile cliniche lunghissime datanti molti anni (in alcuni casi anche 20 o più!), prima che i diretti interessati iniziassero ad avere il sospetto della causa!

La scoperta della causa li ha poi portati ad allontanarsi dalle fonti di CEM che loro avevano individuato come responsabili e, cosa ancora più degna di nota, l’allontanamento ha portato ad una TOTALE regressione delle patologie di cui sopra, le quali immancabilmente si ripresentavano in caso di successive esposizioni.

Francamente, una somatizzazione può anche dissimulare una patologia neurologica, ma non è in grado di causare infezioni urinarie come la cistite emorragica, oppure ileo paralitico, eruzioni cutanee eritemato-papulose su base endocrinologica od allergica, tricodistrofia e caduta dei capelli, ecc.]

Bioelectromagnetics. 2016 Jan;37(1):14-24. doi: 10.1002/bem.21937. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

by Dieudonné M1

1Centre Max Weber and Université Lumière-Lyon 2, Lyon, France.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Received for review: 20 June 2015
Accepted: 3 September 2015
Published online: 15 September 2015 in Wiley Online Library

Conflict of interest: None.

Keywords
IEI-EMF; attribution process; causal reasoning; idiopathic environmental intolerance; illness narratives

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such. Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed. A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction. Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms.

Source/Fonte:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369906

Full paper PDF/ PDF dello studio completo:

EFFETTO NOCEBO-studio di qualità

Effect of man-made electromagnetic fields on common Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) seed germination: a preliminary replication study / Efecto de campos magnéticos artificiales en la germinación de Lepidium sativum (Brassicaceae): un estudio preliminar

[Il presente lavoro è stato condotto in conseguenza dell’esperimento svolto da un gruppo di ragazze Danesi (Lea Nielson, Mathilde Nielsen, Signe Nielsen, Sisse Coltau e Rikke Holm) alla Hjallerup Skole, sotto la supervisione del loro insegnante di biologia il sig. Kim Horsevad.
Queste ragazze hanno presentato il suddetto esperimento come parte di una fiera/concorso della scienza nazionale per gli studenti delle scuole superiori, del quale maggiori informazioni possono essere trovate al seguente sito: 
www.ungeforskere.dk.
Tutto è iniziato quando le ragazze si sono accorte di avere difficoltà di concentrazione durante le lezioni e pensarono che la causa di queste (ed anche dei loro disturbi del sonno) potesse essere in relazione con il fatto di tenere il cellulare acceso di fianco al letto durante la notte.
Così hanno esposto dei semi di crescione alle emissioni elettromagnetiche tipiche dei cellulari per valutarne gli effetti biologici.

Cammaerts e Johansson hanno utilizzato i semi della Brassicacea Lepidium sativum (crescione d’Alinois), appurando che sotto gli effetti di alti livelli di radiazione (70-100 W / m2 = 175 mV / m)  non sono germinati.
Infatti, il primo passo della germinazione dei semi – ad esempio le imbibizioni delle cellule germinali – non ha potuto verificarsi in presenza della radiazione, mentre all’interno del compost umido tali imbibizioni si sono verificate e le radici si sono esilmente sviluppate.
Quando rimossi dal campo elettromagnetico, i semi sono germinati normalmente.

Quindi la radiazione è stata molto probabilmente la causa del mancato verificarsi delle imbibizioni e germinazioni dei semi.

In entrambi i casi deve essersi senz’altro trattato di EFFETTO NOCEBO: d’altra parte è ben nota a tutti la incredibile suscettibilità psicologica dei semi di crescione  😉 !]

Phyton, International Journal of Experimental Botany ISSN 0031 9457 (2015) 84: 132-137

by:
Cammaerts MC (1) & O Johansson (2)

(1) Faculté des sciences, DBO, CP 160/12, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50, Av. F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
(2) The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
Address Correspondence to: Marie-Claire Cammaerts, e-mail: mtricot@ulb.ac.be

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Received: 27 March 2014
Accepted: 19 May 2014
Published: 2015

Keywords
Imbibitions; Seeds; Water; Wireless waves

ABSTRACT

Under high levels of radiation (70-100 µW/m2 =175 mV/m), seeds of Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) never germinated. In fact, the first step of seeds’ germination ‒ e.g. imbibitions of germinal cells ‒ could not occur under radiation, while inside the humid compost such imbibitions occurred and roots slightly developed. When removed from the electromagnetic field, seeds germinated normally. The radiation was, thus, most likely the cause of the non-occurrence of the seeds’ imbibitions and germination.

RESUMEN

Las semillas de Lepidium sativum, Brassicaceae, nunca germinaron bajo altos niveles de radiación (70-100 µW/m2 =175 mV/m). En realidad, el primer paso en la germinación de las semillas – ej. imbibición de las células germinales – no ocurrió bajo radiación, mientras que tal imbibición ocurrió dentro del compost húmedo y las raíces desarrollaron un poco. Cuando las semillas fueron removidas del campo magnético, las mismas desarrollaron normalmente. La radiación fue obviamente la causa que no ocurriera la imbibición y la germinación de las semillas.

INTRODUCTION

The present work was undertaken consequently to that performed by a group of Danish girls (Lea Nielson, Mathilde Nielsen, Signe Nielsen, Sisse Coltau and Rikke Holm), at Hjallerup Skole, under the supervision of their biology teacher Mr. Kim Horsevad. These girls made an experiment as a part of a national science fair/competition for high school pupils about which more information can be found at the website
www.ungeforskere.dk
All started when the girls had difficulties concentrating in their lessons. “We all thought we experienced concentration problems in school if we slept with our mobile phones at the bedside, and sometimes we also found we had difficulties sleeping”. The five girls took 400 cress seeds and randomly spread them into 12 trays. They then placed the trays in two different rooms, at the same temperature, six in each room.
They gave to the trays the same amount of water and sunlight over 12 days, but exposed six of the trays to mobile phone radiation. In other words, six trays of seeds were placed in a room with no radiation, while six were placed in another room alongside two activated routers emitted roughly the same type of radiation as a common mobile phone. The results were obvious: the cress seeds alongside the routers did not grow at all, and some even seemingly mutated or died.
The students repeated their experiment twice. The results in both were equally dramatic, and showed a dose-response effect between the two batches. The statistical significance of the biomass reduction in the students’ tests with a p-value (2-tail) of <0.000005 is thought-provoking!
Great effort was made to characterize and measure the premises’ background electromagnetic fields and the climatic conditions. No obvious confounders were then found that could give rise to – and explain – the different growth of the irradiated and the non-irradiated seeds.
It would be tempting to just discard such observations since they have not been performed under controlled conditions, thus not following all the rules of sciences. But often, observations done outside of the regular laboratory environments are the start of new discoveries. So, we decided to try to replicate the girls’ work.
Man-made electromagnetic waves have actually largely been shown to have adverse effects on living organisms. They affect, for instance, mammals (Adang et al., 2006; Benlaidi & Kharroussi, 2011), birds (Everaert & Bauwens, 2007), amphibians (Balmori, 2006), bees (Kimmel et al., 2007, Sharma & Kumar, 2010; Favre, 2011), ants (Cammaerts et al., 2012, 2013), fruit flies (Panagopoulos et al., 2004; Panagopoulos, 2012), and even protozoa (Cammaerts et al., 2011). In fact, they act firstly and essentially on the cellular membrane and so affect any living organism (Cammaerts et al., 2011). Such waves have also been shown to impact plants (Roux et al., 2008; Haggerty, 2010), at physiological and ecological levels.
In order to bring some new information on the subject, we here examine if man-made electromagnetic waves impact plants’ germination and more precisely the first events occurring at the beginning of that germination. We are conscious that our observations are only preliminary ones and that further studies (replication, cytological observations, and physiological studies) are necessary to verify the present finding and to understand what is actually and exactly occurring in germinal cells under radiation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Four identical series of seeds of Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) (same quantity, quality, origin, age) were deposited on identical compost (same initial sample), each one in an identical tray (20 cm x 15 cm x 4 cm). Compost is the commonly used material for obtaining germination of seeds. The compost was humidified with same quantity (100 ml) of the very same tap water. Two of these trays were set at a place where the electromagnetic field reached an intensity of 70 – 100 µW/m2 (= about 175 mV/m), this being mainly due to the presence of two communication masts at about 200 meters of distance (Fig. 1). The two other trays were set at another place where the electromagnetic field had an intensity of about 2 – 3 µW/m2 (= 30 mV/m). These two series of seeds, set under low radiation level, were used as the control sample.
Since the existing electromagnetic fields were generated by communication masts, the frequencies of the emitted waves were 900 MHz and/or 1,800 MHz. The intensity of the electromagnetic fields was measured using an HF 35 C radiation intensity meter for frequencies from 800 MHz to 23 GHz (Gigahertz solutions GmbH, Am Galgenberg 12, D-90579 Langenzenn, Germany). All the other environmental conditions were near-identical for each of the two double series of seeds (temperature = 20 °C, humidity = 70%, luminosity ≈ 300 lux). The seeds were then observed after four, seven and ten days, and tap water was poured on the compost, equally for each series of seeds, at regular intervals. When obvious differences were surprisingly observed between the seeds set under the two different levels of electromagnetism exposition, samples of seeds were removed, attentively observed and examined under a stereomicroscope. Seeds which had been maintained under two different levels of radiation were drawn using a camera lucida (magnification = 25x), and via these drawings, their length and their width (two orthogonal segments) were measured in mm. The means of the obtained values were established and the distributions of values (for the length on one hand, for the width on the other hand) corresponding to each two kinds of seeds were statistically compared using the nonparametric χ² tests, the level of probability being set at p<0.05 (Siegel & Castellan, 1989). After these assessments, samples of each kind of seeds were set under the lower exposure and observed once more after two days.

Cammaerts &amp; Johansson 2015

Germination did not occur under 70 – 100 μW/m2. After four days, the seeds set under the two different electromagnetic field strengths already differed: those under the lower level had begun to germinate while those under the higher level of electromagnetic field had not at all done so. After seven days in total, many seeds maintained under low level of exposure had completed their germination and other ones were in the process of their germination while the seeds set under the higher level of exposure appeared unchanged (when looking at them from above) (Fig. 2 A). The experiment was continued until a total of 10 days with, at that time, the same results as above: normal germination for the seeds under low radiation, apparently no germination for those set under the higher radiation.

In the humid compost, roots development occurred.  Ten days after the beginning of the experiment, seeds set under the higher exposure (having not germinated) as well as seeds maintained under low exposure (being in the process of their germination) were collected, i.e. taken using small pins and put into cups. First, they were visually examined, and after that, observed under the stereomicroscope.
First, while doing this manipulation, we clearly detected some external difference between the two kinds of seeds.
Those kept under higher radiation were dry, not clinging at all while those kept without nearly no radiation were wet, clinging, and often attached to one another.
Secondly, very surprisingly, inside the humid compost, small roots of seeds set under radiation had developed, nearly like for seeds kept without radiation, with the difference that, in the latter case, the roots were somewhat more developed (Fig. 2B). It might be possible that, inside the compost and the water it contains, the electromagnetic field either had a lower intensity (through shielding effects) or had its adverse effects decreased or even countered (compared to the situation existing above the compost). Of course, if the effects we see are dependent only on the radiation, the most sensitive plant parts would be the ones above the soil, and they would be the first to be affected/retracted/not developed.

Seeds’ imbibitions did not occur under 70 – 100 μW/m2. The two kinds of seed, collected as related above, were observed under a stereomicroscope, drawn (Fig. 2 C), and measured as explained in the ‘Material and methods’ section. For seeds set under 2 – 3 µW/m2, the two variables on average equaled 0.51 mm and 0.27 mm while for seeds set under 70 – 100 µW/m2, these variables on average equaled 0.45 mm and 0.21 mm. Statistically, 0.45 mm turned out only slightly different from 0.51 mm (χ² = 3.34; df = 1; p ≈ 0.05) while 0.21 mm strongly differed from 0.27 mm (χ² = 10.77; df = 1; p ≈ 0.001). The more affected variable was thus the seeds’ width. Consequently, it could be presumed that without radiation, seeds normally went through the expected imbibitions phenomenon (the first step of the plants’ germination) while under radiation, seeds were no longer able to go through this essential first step of their germination.

Cammaerts &amp; Johansson 2015 - 2

According to the previous observation (see previous paragraph), it may be added that the germinal cells of the roots, located inside (surrounded by) humid compost, could realize such imbibitions.

Seeds exposed were still alive. The two kinds of collected seeds were then taken out of their initial location and set, each one, in a small tray (10 cm x 5 cm x 4 cm), the two trays then being deposited side by side, in a room where the level of radiation was low (2 µW/m2). The seeds having begun their germination went on doing so and those having not germinated began to do so, this becoming apparent after two days (Fig. 2 D).

DISCUSSION

The fact that man-made electromagnetic waves probably have adverse effects on living organisms is actually more and more realized and admitted. Reviews on the subject exist (Pakhomov & Murphy, 2000; Fragopoulou et al., 2010; Sivani & Sudarsanam, 2012; Cucurachi et al., 2013). However, first, the mechanism underlying such adverse effects are not yet fully understood so it is difficult to counteract these effects while still going on using any wireless technology. Secondly, the revealed adverse effects apparently do not worry public health authorities, parliaments, governments, and – thus – not the general public who is not fully informed. Indeed, the wireless technology is actually more and more used, both for human work tasks and hobbies. Users are not worried probably because the revealed adverse effects appear not to be emergent for human beings, i.e. effects on Protozoan’s locomotion (Cammaerts et al., 2011), on Drosophila’s reproduction (Panagopoulos, 2012, Panagopoulos et al., 2004), on ants’ memory (Cammaerts et al., 2012) and response to pheromones (Cammaerts et al., 2013), on bees’ collection of pollen (Sharma & Kumar, 2010), on amphibian’s embryogenesis (Balmori, 2006), on rat’s memory (Adang et al., 2006), and so on, although they -of course- are! Here, we reveal yet an impact of man-made electromagnetic waves on a very important phenomenon: the germination of the seeds of plants. We show that the first essential step of the germination (= the imbibitions) seemingly does not occur under radiation and that the electromagnetic waves are the only likely cause of such a non-occurrence. We presume that the cellular membrane organization, the water and ions transfer through that membrane are perturbed. Indeed, we have previously shown that the cellular membrane is strongly affected by electromagnetism (Cammaerts et al., 2011), which explains, in our mind, the impact of such electromagnetism on nervous cells, reproduction and behavior. Other data are also in favor of such an assumption (see the review of Marino and Carrubba, 2009). Let us add that seeds are often deposited onto the ground and not set inside the earth, and are so potentially maximally exposed to electromagnetism. On the other hand, such electromagnetism has been shown to impact, among others, the health of plants (Belyavskaya, 2004; Roux et al., 2008; Haggerty, 2010; and four Web sites in the list of references). Plants are truly and very necessary for life on earth; people should now be very conscious of this potentially emerging problem!
In conclusion, the present investigation -although preliminary in its character- indicates that the prodigious wireless technology may effectively and seriously impact nature and should urgently be used much more cautiously (see also the published work of Doyon (2008)). The present study also brings some new information on the subject -effect of electromagnetism on plants- but it must be replicated on several plants species, at different independent laboratories, as well as developed further at the cytological and physiological levels by botanists, histologists and physiologists. Finally, in essence, it clearly supports the initial findings of Lea Nielson, Mathilde Nielsen, Signe Nielsen, Sisse Coltau and Rikke Holm, at Hjallerup Skole, under the supervision of their biology teacher Mr. Kim Horsevad.

Conflict of Interest Statement 
The authors know of no conflict of interest related to this work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Olle Johansson was supported for this study by the Karolinska Institute, and Einar Rasmussen, Kristiansand S, Norway, Brian Stein, Melton Mowbray, Leicestereshire, UK, The Irish Campaign against Microwave Pollution, and the Irish Doctors Environmental Association (IDEA; Cumann Comhshaoil Dhoctuiri na hEireann), are gratefully acknowledged for their general support.

REFERENCES

Adang, D., B. Campo & A. Vander Vorst (2006). Has a 970 MHz Pulsed Exposure an Effect on the Memory Related Behaviour of Rats? Wireless Technology 135-138.

Balmori, A. (2006). The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on the amphibian decline: Is this an important piece of the puzzle?  Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry 88: 287-299.

Belyavskaya, N.A. (2004). Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants. Advances in Space Research 34: 1566-1574.

Benlaidi, F.Z. & M. El Kharroussi (2011). Effets des ondes électromagnétiques générées par le GSM sur la mémoire et le comportement chez le rat. http://sites.google.com/site/9drineuro/r%C3%A9sum%C3%A9s6.

Cammaerts, M.-C., O. Debeir & R. Cammaerts (2011). Changes in Paramecium caudatum (Protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 30: 57-66.

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http://www.wageningenuniversity.nl/NL/nieuwsagenda/nieuws/Bomen101120.htm

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1332310/Is-Wi-Fikilling-trees-Dutch-study-shows-leaves-dying-exposure-Wi-Fi-radiation.html

http://readwriteweb.com/cloud/2010/11/study-wi-fi-is-makingour-tree.php

http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/fr/Blog/le-wi-fi-tuerait-les-arbres/blog/33569/

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Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder

[Importantissimo studio del prof. Belpomme, finalmente pubblicato ma non ancora open-source, che si spera metterà freno al mare di bugie dette sinora riguardo ad EHS e MCS, in quanto ha individuato dei marker di malattia e soprattutto ha messo questi ultimi rispettivamente in relazione con la esposizione ai CEM e alle sostanze chimiche. 
Ergo adesso sarà molto più difficile, per certune persone, AFFERMARE FALSAMENTE che non esistono prove delle suddette relazioni e che, nel caso della EHS, alla base di tutto ci sia l’EFFETTO NOCEBO.
Basta bugie! Perché i malati di EHS e MCS non possono continuare a pagare il fatto di avere delle malattie scomode!

La traduzione in Italiano dell’ABSTRACT segue l’ABSTRACT stesso.]

Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.

By:
Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Received: 11 September, 2015
Accepted: 2 November, 2015

Keywords
Biomarkers
Cerebral hypoperfusion
Electrohypersensitivity
Limbic system
Multiple chemical sensitivity

ABSTRACT

Much of the controversy over the causes of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitività (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis.

Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS.

Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47.

As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/ or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients.
Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response.

Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%.

Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response.

Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increate Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients.

As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased ( < 0.8) in all investigated cases.

Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography.
Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus.

Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.

SEPARATORE AIE x sito

[IT]

ABSTRACT

Gran parte della controversia sulle cause di Elettro-Ipersensibilità (EHS) e Sensibilità Chimica Multipla (MCS) sta nell’assenza sia di criteri clinici riconosciuti che di biomarcatori oggettivi per una diagnosi che sia largamente riconosciuta.

Sin dal 2009, abbiamo studiato prospetticamente, da un punto di vista clinico e biologico, 1216 casi auto-riferiti di EHS e/o  MCS in successione, nel tentativo di rispondere ad entrambe le domande.
Riportiamo qui i nostri dati preliminari, basati su 727 casi valutabili di 839 registrati: 521 (71,6%) sono stati diagnosticati con EHS, 52 (7,2%) con MCS, e 154 (21,2%) sia con EHS che MCS.

Due pazienti su tre con EHS e/o MCS erano femmine; l’età media era di 47 anni.

Poichè l’infiammazione sembra essere un processo chiave derivante dagli effetti di campi elettromagnetici (CEM) e/o agenti chimici sui tessuti, e il rilascio di istamina è potenzialmente un principale mediatore dell’infiammazione, abbiamo sistematicamente misurato l’istamina nel sangue di pazienti.
Intorno al 40% aveva un aumento della istaminemia (specialmente quando entrambe le condizioni erano presenti), indicando che una risposta infiammatoria cronica può essere rilevata in questi pazienti.

Lo stress ossidativo è parte dell’infiammazione ed è un elemento chiave nel contribuire a danni e risposta. La Nitrotirosina, un marker sia della produzione di perossinitrito (ONOO ° -) che di apertura della Barriera EmatoEncefalica (BEE ), era aumentata nel 28% dei casi.
La proteina S100B, un altro marcatore di apertura BEE, era aumentata nel 15% dei casi.

Nel 23% dei casi sono stati rilevati autoanticorpi circolanti contro la O-mielina, indicativi del fatto che EHS ed MCS possono essere associate ad una risposta autoimmune.

A conferma degli esperimenti sugli animali che mostravano un aumento delle chaperonine Hsp27 e/o Hsp70 sotto l’influenza dei CEM, abbiamo trovato Hsp27 e/o Hsp70 aumentate nel 33% dei pazienti.
Poichè la maggior parte dei pazienti hanno riferito insonnia e stanchezza cronica, abbiamo determinato il rapporto 6-idrossimelatonina solfato (6-OHMS)/creatinina sulla urina delle 24 ore e trovato che era ridotto (<0,8) in tutti i casi esaminati.

Infine, considerando i sintomi auto-riferiti di EHS e MCS, abbiamo misurato in modo seriale il flusso di sangue al cervello nei lobi temporali di ciascun caso con la tomosfigmografia computerizzata cerebrale a ultrasuoni pulsati.
Entrambi i disturbi sono stati associati ad ipoperfusione nell’area capsulotalamica, suggerendo che il processo infiammatorio coinvolge il sistema limbico e il talamo.

I nostri dati suggeriscono fortemente che EHS e MCS possono essere oggettivamente caratterizzate e routinariamente diagnosticate tramite semplici test disponibili in commercio.
Entrambi i disturbi sembrano coinvolgere iper-istaminemia in relazione con l’infiammazione, stress ossidativo, risposta autoimmune, ipoperfusione capsulotalamica e apertura della BEE, e un deficit nella disponibilità metabolica di melatonina; cosa che suggerisce un rischio di malattie neurodegenerative croniche.
Infine, la comune concomitanza di EHS e MCS, suggerisce fortemente un meccanismo patologico comune.

Source/Fonte:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613326

Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines

[C’è chi parla di EFFETTO NOCEBO (ovvero di reazioni negative o disturbi indesiderati che un soggetto manifesterebbe per AUTOSUGGESTIONE in seguito alla esposizione ad un qualsiasi agente percepito erroneamente come dannoso) per spiegare i disturbi lamentati dai soggetti Elettrosensibili.
Certamente gli enzimi di detossificazione endogeni dei bovini studiati in questo lavoro, ed i bovini stessi, non erano a conoscenza e soprattutto non avevano coscienza della presenza di stazioni radio base nelle vicinanze!]

BMC Vet Res. 2014 Jun 19;10:136. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-136.

By:
Michael Hässig1*, Marietta Wullschleger1, Hanspeter Naegeli2, Jaqueline Kupper2,Bernhard Spiess3, Niels Kuster4, Myles Capstick4 and Manuel Murbach4

1Department of Farm Animals, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich, Switzerland
3Section for Ophthalmology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
4IT’IS Foundation ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*Corresponding author: Michael Hässig mhaessig@vetclinics.uzh.ch

ARTICLE INFO

Article history
Received: 27 november 2013
Accepted: 4 June 2014
Published: 19 June 2014

Keywords
Bovine
Non ionizing radiation (NIR)
Handy antenna
Oxidative stress

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
The influence of electromagnetic fields on the health of humans and animals is still an intensively discussed and scientifically investigated issue (Prakt Tierarzt 11:15-20, 2003; Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17:326-332, 2004; J Toxicol Environment Health, Part B 12:572-597, 2009). We are surrounded by numerous electromagnetic fields of variable strength, coming from electronic equipment and its power cords, from high-voltage power lines and from antennas for radio, television and mobile communication. Particularly the latter cause’s controversy, as everyone likes to have good mobile reception at anytime and anywhere, whereas nobody wants to have such a basestation antenna in their proximity.RESULTS:
In this experiment, the NIR has resulted in changes in the enzyme activities. Certain enzymes were disabled, others enabled by NIR. Furthermore, individual behavior patterns were observed. While certain cows reacted to NIR, others did not react at all, or even inversely.CONCLUSION:
The present results coincide with the information from the literature, according to which NIR leads to changes in redox proteins, and that there are individuals who are sensitive to radiation and others that are not. However, the latter could not be distinctly attributed – there are cows that react clearly with one enzyme while they do not react with another enzyme at all, or even the inverse. The study approach of testing ten cows each ten times during three phases has proven to be appropriate. Future studies should however set the post-exposure phase later on.Fonti:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946856

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/10/136

Versione PDF integrale scaricabile al seguente link:

COWS and EMF 1746-6148-10-136.pdf